Vorlesungsverzeichnis

Suchen Sie hier über ein Suchformular im Vorlesungsverzeichnis der Leuphana.


Lehrveranstaltungen

Creating Futures through Cultural Entrepreneurship - a Case Study of the Edinburgh Festival (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Laura Fey

Termin:
14-täglich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 13:45 | 10.04.2024 - 26.06.2024 | C 14.102 a Seminarraum

Inhalt: This is a bi-weekly postgraduate seminar that provides a brief overview of cultural entrepreneurship and introduces students to the case study of the Edinburgh Festival to gain a deeper, hands-on understanding of creating and legitimizing cultural organizations. Festivals have become common world-wide. The 2015 UNESCO report stated that Germany hosted 240 festivals, France approximately 1000, Spain 700 and Italy 200. Not all festivals are the same – they range from dramatic arts and cinema to the visual arts and music. Moreover, some festivals focus on one theme (e.g., music) whereas others, including our case study of the Edinburgh Festival, are composed of several different disciplines. The importance of festivals is not only their economic impact but also their role in giving a sense of identity, shared value and belonging, in preventing exclusion. Given these important social and economic effects, it is not surprising that the UNESCO report calls for more research into understanding how festivals can be successfully structured and designed. The Edinburgh Festival, is the world’s largest arts festival and has a 76-year history. In 2019, 4.9 million people attended festival shows, generating £313 million in revenue. Edinburgh has been internationally acclaimed as an exemplary festival city. We will explore the phenomenon of the Edinburgh Festival in detail, discuss learnings and critical aspects to its organization. Theoretically, we will focus on cultural entrepreneurship as an active and fast developing area of research in the social sciences, with challenges and opportunities for organizations as well as society. This course aims to give students an overview of cultural entrepreneurship with real life application by diving into the case of the Edinburgh Festival. Students are encouraged to apply theoretical and empirical ideas to their own life. Each introduced idea should be examined with the following questions in mind: How do I understand the topic for myself? How does it matter for my own life and my studies/future jobs? What is/are the overarching question(s) with which the idea is concerned? What are the key concepts? What are the assumptions about causal forces? How far is the empirical evidence convincing? A sub theme that you should consider is why some ideas seem to convince you more than others. That is, pay attention to the crafting and composition of ideas from YouTube videos to academic papers. Lastly, this course is about reflecting on your experiences and to formulate your own research questions and perspectives.

Developing research competencies through Problematization (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Julia Benkert

Termin:
14-täglich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 11:45 | 10.04.2024 - 08.05.2024 | C 40.255 Seminarraum
14-täglich | Mittwoch | 12:15 - 13:45 | 10.04.2024 - 08.05.2024 | C 12.112 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Mi, 29.05.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 29.05.2024, 13:45 | C 40.606 Seminarraum
14-täglich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 11:45 | 05.06.2024 - 26.06.2024 | C 40.255 Seminarraum
14-täglich | Mittwoch | 12:15 - 13:45 | 05.06.2024 - 26.06.2024 | C 12.112 Seminarraum

Inhalt: The course is designed around using problematization as a methodology for developing “interesting research” (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013). Given that the review and critical analysis of specific research topics in the existing literature is an essential element of the problematization approach, the first part of the course will focus on principles for critical reading and critical analysis. In that, critical reading means to move beyond description of statements and gap-spotting in the literature towards challenging assumptions. The key here is to not only identify and challenge the assumptions that underlie others’ but also one’s own position. Related aspects include the differentiation between applying a theoretical framework versus problematizing it, as well as the question of what constitutes an (un-)ethical research subject. The course is organised as an interactive, “hands-on” seminar. In order to participate in in-class discussions and learning activities, students will need to be prepared to read required readings before class and there will be a range of self-study tasks to be completed either individually or as a group throughout the course. As interaction with peers is an important source of learning in this course, regular attendance of seminars is essential to successful completion.

Empirical Research Design and Causal Inference: Applications and Reflections (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Henning Schröder

Termin:
wöchentlich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 11:45 | 10.04.2024 - 26.06.2024 | C 40.256 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Mi, 19.06.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 19.06.2024, 13:45 | C 40.152 Seminarraum | Replacement date for May 15, 2024
Einzeltermin | Mi, 26.06.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 26.06.2024, 11:45 | C 40.256 Seminarraum | Classroom Test

Inhalt: The course aims to introduce students to empirical research methods and applied data analysis. It will help participants to better understand common empirical research designs frequently applied in the field social sciences. Specifically, the course discusses how these methods are used in top-tier research papers and provides an introduction on how to apply the discussed methods to real-world archival data using statistical software. The first part of the course reviews econometric fundamentals and introduces students to the widely used statistical software STATA (available via a Campus license). In the second part of the course the focus will be on endogeneity issues, causal inference, and empirical identification strategies. The course is well suited for students who want to work with archival data in future research projects or during their master thesis. Participants should have at least a basic knowledge in statistics. However, this course will not resemble the statistics courses students might have taken. Instead, the course is designed to be more hands-on and discussion-oriented. The goal is to demystify the key concepts and fundamentals of modern empirical analysis, to provide practical skills, and to encourage students to develop their own empirical research projects.

Ethnographic Film and Multimodal Methods (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Anna Lisa Ramella

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Mi, 17.04.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 17.04.2024, 11:45 | C 7.019 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Mi, 24.04.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 24.04.2024, 11:45 | C 7.019 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Mi, 08.05.2024, 08:00 - Sa, 11.05.2024, 18:00 | extern | Göttinger International Ethnographic Film Festival (GIEFF)
Einzeltermin | Mi, 22.05.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 22.05.2024, 11:45 | C 7.019 Seminarraum

Inhalt: In this seminar, we turn to the methodology of audiovisual anthropology and approach the methodological advances of ethnographic filmmakers and multimodal anthropologists on the basis of their productions, which will be shown at the 17th German International Ethnographic Film Festival (GIEFF2024) in Göttingen. The GIEFF is one of the most renowned ethnographic film festivals worldwide and will take place this year from 8-12 May 2024 (excursion only until 11 May!). Our seminar takes this as an opportunity to consider ethnographic and multimodal methods through the medium of film and to question which aspects of filmmaking support ethnography in its endeavour to describe place, time and experience. Via a spectrum of camera and interview techniques to sensory ethnography, which we will discuss in preparatory sessions using selected texts and examples, we will review and discuss the festival films together. We will also take the opportunity to talk to international ethnographic filmmakers and multimodal anthropologists about their methodology in interviews. The seminar consists of two preparation dates (17.04. & 24.04.2024, 10-12 am), an excursion to the film festival in Göttingen with daily meetings in the group (8-11.05.2018) and a follow-up/evaluation meeting (22.05.2024, 10-12 am).

Exploring the social construction of sustainability through qualitative research methods (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Hannah Trittin-Ulbrich

Termin:
14-täglich | Mittwoch | 08:15 - 11:45 | 02.04.2024 - 05.07.2024 | C 12.010 Seminarraum

Inhalt: In this course, students will learn to apply qualitative research methods in a research project on social media content creators ('influencers'). The course will provide theoretical foundations on these methods, but will particularly focus on the application of qualitative research methods. Students will be tasked to study how social media content creators ('influencers') promote and advertise sustainable products and services. As opinion-leaders, influencers are important actors in the construction of messages about sustainability in society. In this project, we aim to investigate what narratives, visuals, or emotions influencers use to promote sustainable products and services, and critically assess the implications of such digital entrepreneurship for societal understandings of sustainability. Based on the collection and analysis of online data through netnographic observations and interviews, students will investigate the production of visuals, artifacts, and emotions that convey sustainability messages. Students will then engage in group work and work on their own research projects. The course focuses on the practical aspects of designing a research project, assessing research sites, the data collection and analysis process.

Growing Together (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Theres Konrad

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Fr, 12.04.2024, 10:15 - Fr, 12.04.2024, 14:30 | Online-Veranstaltung | Online
Einzeltermin | Fr, 14.06.2024, 10:15 - So, 16.06.2024, 17:45 | C 25.006a coworking space
Einzeltermin | Fr, 14.06.2024, 10:15 - So, 16.06.2024, 17:45 | C 25.007 coworking space
Einzeltermin | Fr, 14.06.2024, 10:15 - So, 16.06.2024, 17:45 | C 25.019 Seminarraum | Raum: C25.019!

Inhalt: Course vision: - -Encounter yourself and one another - -Come closer to own ideas AND their realization [implementation competency] - -Realize own learning objectives [self-efficacy, ownership, attitude] - -Develop an entrepreneurial mindset and useful competencies The course “Growing Together” allows students to deeply engage with oneself within a learning community to explore one´s own entrepreneurial potential. Inspired by Theory U and the often-cited quote of Bill O´Brien “The success of an intervention depends on the interior condition of the intervenor”, this course starts with the exploration of one´s own “interior condition” (intrapersonal competency) as a foundation for entrepreneurial action (interpersonal & implementation competency). The course gives space to the verbalization, exploration, development, and refinement of (own) ideas that want to be realized (after the retreat!). The course takes place in the shape of an intensive 3-days-retreat, drawing on experiential learning theory and the concept of the flipped-classroom. This means that the course is highly dependent on students´ pre-retreat preparations and willingness to engage in offered learning opportunities. The course includes phases of individual work and plenary sessions, input, reflection, and experiences and takes place in- and outdoors. On day 3 of the retreat students will present artefacts, elaborated along the semester, during the retreat, and outside of class (assignments on Friday and Saturday) [oral part of examination]. The written part of course examination happens throughout the semester along a provided template, providing space for individual reflection assignments documenting the student´s individual process towards their anticipated learning objectives and project goals, including a final project reflection. Note that this course requires the willingness to intensively explore yourself. It builds upon the pre-retreat assignments and a meaningful experience can only be provided if you fully immerse yourself into course, content, and community for the entire course duration. I invite you to see this course as the unique opportunity to have a retreat for yourself and your ideas. The course Growing Together is based upon several premises: - -“The success of an intervention depends on the interior condition of the intervenor” (Bill O´Brien via Otto Scharmer, Theory U) // The roots create the fruits! - -It not only takes a village to raise a child but a community to make the best out of an idea. - -It doesn´t matter how far you go. It´s all about how deep you dive. (Peter Jenkins)

Introduction to statistics (Complementary Studies) (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Henrik Wehrden

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Mi, 04.09.2024, 09:00 - Mi, 04.09.2024, 18:00 | C 40.501 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Do, 05.09.2024, 09:00 - Do, 05.09.2024, 18:00 | C 40.501 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Fr, 06.09.2024, 09:00 - Fr, 06.09.2024, 18:00 | C 40.501 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Introduction to statistics

Measuring the impact of sustainable ventures: A practical application of impact logics & measurement tools (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Steffen Farny

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Fr, 12.04.2024, 10:00 - Fr, 12.04.2024, 18:00 | C 12.112 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Sa, 13.04.2024, 10:00 - Sa, 13.04.2024, 18:00 | C 12.112 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Fr, 03.05.2024, 11:30 - Fr, 03.05.2024, 14:30 | Online-Veranstaltung | Online-Veranstaltung | Zoom, only 30min attendance within this slot required for an individual coaching session
Einzeltermin | Fr, 17.05.2024, 12:00 - Fr, 17.05.2024, 18:00 | extern | tbc
Einzeltermin | Fr, 31.05.2024, 11:30 - Fr, 31.05.2024, 14:30 | Online-Veranstaltung | Online-Veranstaltung | Zoom, only 30min attendance within this slot required for an individual coaching session
Einzeltermin | Mi, 19.06.2024, 15:00 - Mi, 19.06.2024, 18:00 | C 12.112 Seminarraum | optional slot for further coaching, recommended
Einzeltermin | Fr, 28.06.2024, 08:30 - Fr, 28.06.2024, 18:00 | extern | tbc

Inhalt: In the course " Measuring the impact of sustainable ventures: A practical application of impact logics & measurement tools", students learn the basics of impact measurement and apply them in small groups to a sustainable venture in a practical project. The basics are taught in a 2-day block at the beginning of the semester. Both impact logics such as the Theory of Change and measurement methods are introduced and embedded in a process of impact measurement. Subsequently, the students form small groups. Each of the small groups develops in cooperation with a sustainable venture a concept for impact measurement for the respective organisation. This year we work together with professional sport teams. The teachers support this process through regular coaching sessions. The course concludes with a presentation of the concepts to the organisations.

Rechtsphilosophie (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Alexander Stark

Termin:
wöchentlich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 11:45 | 02.04.2024 - 05.07.2024 | C 12.001 Seminarraum

Inhalt: The subject of the course are philosophical and theoretical perspectives on law. What is a legal norm? What conditions are required to classify a normative system as a legal system? What is the difference between a legal system and other normative systems – such as chess, the game Monopoly or social rules of etiquette – and moral norms? What is the so-called normativity of law and to what extent are there similarities and differences to other normativities (morality, rationality)? Is there a moral obligation to obey law?

Reflecting on Research Methods (Vorlesung)

Dozent/in: Henrik Wehrden

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Mi, 03.04.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 03.04.2024, 11:45 | C 40.606 Seminarraum | Kick-off Session
Einzeltermin | Mi, 03.07.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 03.07.2024, 11:45 | C 40.501 Seminarraum | Closing Session

Inhalt: The module "Reflecting Research Methods" deals with the engagement with unrelated, unknown scientific methods. Together with students of different major, these methods are applied and reflected on with regard to ethical research questions and cross-disciplinary contexts of use. In addition, the possibilities and limits of familiar methods and specialist cultures will be reflected upon in a more foreign way, and specific methods will be used to create differences and connections. This also includes the examination of different concepts of interdisciplinary research. Since it is a matter of getting involved with methods from other disciplines, the module offers special events that encourage a change of perspective. This can be done, for example, by reflecting on methods on the basis of example fields that allow links to one's own degree programmes, but pursue a methodological perspective that is not already regularly offered in these degree programmes.

Replication studies in (quantitative) empirical social science (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Christian Pfeifer

Termin:
wöchentlich | Mittwoch | 12:15 - 13:45 | 02.04.2024 - 05.07.2024 | C 3.121 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Good empirical research in science, including Economics and other social sciences, should be replicable. Replication studies usually focus on the robustness of empirical findings. They should not be too narrow and rather scientific than pure replications, i.e., they can use (a) different methods and same data or (b) same methods and different data (different time or different population); but no pure reproductions (same method and same data). Typically, such replications can be research notes. The authors should start by briefly stating literature, theory, methods, data, and findings of the replicated paper, before starting the own replication, and finishing with a comparison of the results as well as a short discussion. Students select a replicable journal paper and conduct an own replication study. After the first meeting, in which students are introduced to replications (focus on economics and related fields) and the organization of the course, students have to search for an empirical paper from an international top journal (ranked in SSCI), which can be replicated. To be replicable, a selected paper should ideally have stored the statistical files (and sometimes even the data) on the journal homepage (or related repositories). These papers are shortly verbally discussed in the class to check their fit for a replication. Then students conduct their own empirical replication study for their selected journal paper, which will be presented in class and in a written research note.

Rhetoric in Research and Practice (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Jan C. L. König

Termin:
wöchentlich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 11:45 | 10.04.2024 - 26.06.2024 | C 12.015 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Fr, 31.05.2024, 10:15 - Fr, 31.05.2024, 15:45 | C 12.101 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Fr, 21.06.2024, 10:15 - Fr, 21.06.2024, 15:45 | C 12.013 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Since classical antiquity the art of rhetoric had been part of septem artes liberales in research. Hence, it had been part of the curriculum vitae of scholars for both academic purpose and practical usage. In this course, basic approaches and methods of classical rhetoric are taught and brought into relation with current research in communication and linguistics. All approaches will be evaluated with typical areas of interest: (political) speeches and communication, debating and discussions, discourse leading as well as public relations, marketing, medial rhetorics, organisational rhetorics, and crisis communication.

Social media analysis, Discourse & Netnography (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Galina Goncharenko

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Mi, 29.05.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 29.05.2024, 13:45 | C 14.102 a Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Fr, 31.05.2024, 10:15 - Fr, 31.05.2024, 13:45 | C 14.102 a Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Sa, 01.06.2024, 10:15 - Sa, 01.06.2024, 17:45 | C 14.102 a Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Fr, 14.06.2024, 11:15 - Fr, 14.06.2024, 14:45 | C 14.102 a Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Mi, 19.06.2024, 10:15 - Mi, 19.06.2024, 13:45 | C 14.202 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Recognising the impact of digitalisation and the informative value of online platforms, there is an increasing scholarly interest in social media data and the corresponding methods of analysis. As a form of verbal and written communication, discourses are insightful indicators of public perceptions and commonly accepted societal narratives. Qualitative social media analysis and netnography are rooted in the traditions of ethnography and cultural anthropology and the principles of theoretical sampling and theoretical generalisation. The methods allow to observe textual discourse, while preserving the authentic nature of discussions created online by numerous contributors. Discourse analysis captures contextual richness of studied phenomena by emphasising relationships between language and social structures and identifying meanings in various forms of communication. The methods assist in the understanding of social phenomena by the identification of discourses, themes, and patterns. The course will cover research design, data collection, approaches to data analysis and interpretation, and relevant ethical aspects.

Think Mathematically, Act Algorithmically: Optimization Techniques (Complementary Studies) (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Paolo Mercorelli

Termin:
wöchentlich | Freitag | 16:00 - 18:00 | 02.04.2024 - 05.07.2024 | C 40.106 Konrad-Zuse-Raum | This course is offered for Masters and PhD students.

Inhalt: MATLAB is a platform for scientific calculation and high-level programming which uses an interactive environment that allows to conduct complex calculation tasks more efficiently than with traditional languages, such as C, C++ and FORTRAN. It is the one of the most popular platforms currently used in the sciences and engineering. Optimization techniques can be applied in a wide interdisciplinary range of applications in control, estimation and identification problems. Using Matlab, the course embraces the most important optimization techniques and methods which can be used in control systems. The proposed techniques, e.g. Model Predictive Control, Two Point Boundary Optimization Problem, etc. are implemented using Matlab/Simulink. Through discussions on the mathematical origin of the proposed techniques and methods and their inspiring ideas the students should reach, not only a good command on the software, but also a critical spirit to interpret the nature of the algorithms and to reflect on their foundations and structures.

Think Mathematically, Act Algorithmically: Selected Topics in Signal Processing and Control Systems (Complementary Studies) (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Paolo Mercorelli

Termin:
wöchentlich | Mittwoch | 08:15 - 09:45 | 02.04.2024 - 05.07.2024 | C 40.106 Konrad-Zuse-Raum | This course is offered for Masters and PhD students.

Inhalt: The course begins with an overview of wavelet packet structures and their basic applications in solving fitting problems. It then delves into optimization problems using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques within the context of fitting problems in signal processing. The representation of linear systems and their control using the root locus method is covered, along with the discretization of linear systems and their control using root locus. The course also explores optimization control within the context of root locus using PSO, and concludes with an investigation of nonlinear systems analysis and control.

Transculturation and Maritime Exchange: The Visual and Material Culture of Seas and Oceans (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Vera Schulz

Termin:
Einzeltermin | Do, 04.04.2024, 18:00 - Do, 04.04.2024, 19:30 | intern | Kick-off via Zoom
Einzeltermin | Fr, 24.05.2024, 14:30 - Fr, 24.05.2024, 19:00 | C 6.026 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Sa, 25.05.2024, 10:00 - Sa, 25.05.2024, 16:30 | extern | Museum excursion
Einzeltermin | Fr, 21.06.2024, 14:30 - Fr, 21.06.2024, 19:00 | C 12.102 Seminarraum
Einzeltermin | Sa, 22.06.2024, 10:00 - Sa, 22.06.2024, 16:30 | C 12.102 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Seas and oceans are not only important protagonists in processes of transfer and transcultural dynamics of global exchange, but maritime worlds have also created and inspired specific aesthetics. This seminar addresses the complex entanglements between maritime history and transcultural art history focusing on the visual and material culture related to the sea from the premodern era to the present day. It examines the role of maritime themes from a transcultural perspective as well as the significance of the seas in relation to decolonial and posthumanist epistemologies. It discusses issues related to visuality, ecology, and knowledge production from perspectives of the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the North and Baltic Seas, the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and Pacific, primarily focusing on oceans as ‘connected seas’. Topics include motifs of sea voyages and shipwrecks, the Middle Passage and the history of enslavement, the industrialization and colonization of the seas and by the seas, as well as the question of how the colonial past still fundamentally shapes the present in many ways (e.g., in terms of environmental racism), seas as transit and death routes for refugees, and how these aspects are negotiated in the arts. The seminar addresses the question of how maritime objects can be archived and musealized, and it also discusses the seas themselves as archives.

Werkstatt und E-Learning-Einheit zu Methoden der Gender- und Diversity-Forschung (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Tania Mancheno

Termin:
14-täglich | Freitag | 10:15 - 13:45 | 19.04.2024 - 28.06.2024 | C 16.222 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Dieser Kurs vertieft die Inhalte des Grundlagenmoduls „Reflecting Research Methods“ und wendet diese auf an-dere thematische Zugänge bzw. eigene Forschungsarbeiten an. Nach Abschluss sind Sie befähigt, - eine Pluralität an Perspektiven und eine gender- und diversitätssensible Haltung weiter zu entwickeln und zu stärken, - Geschlechter- und Diversitätsaspekte in Forschungsthemen zu erkennen und sie methodisch angemes-sen zu erforschen, - eigene Fragestellungen auf der Grundlage eines fortgeschrittenen Geschlechter- und Diversitätswissens zu entwickeln, darzustellen und zu begründen, - die eigene Selbst- und Fremdpositionierung und die zugrunde liegenden Normvorstellungen und stereoty-pen Zuschreibungen kritisch zu reflektieren. Sie erarbeiten sich folgenden Themen: - Gütekriterien wissenschaftlicher Forschung, - Unterschiede zwischen und Charakteristika von qualitativer Sozialforschung und anderen Methodentra-ditionen, - zentrale Aspekte der Geschichte und Entwicklung gender- und diversitätssensibler Methoden, - sowie das Bestimmen des Erkenntnisanspruches von Forschungsprojekten und die Wahl der angemesse-nen Methode.

Wissenschaftsorganisation: Planung und Durchführung einer wissenschaftlichen Konferenz (Seminar)

Dozent/in: Jan Müggenburg, Christina Wessely

Termin:
wöchentlich | Mittwoch | 10:15 - 11:45 | 02.04.2024 - 05.07.2024 | C 5.124 Seminarraum

Inhalt: Vom 25. - 27.September 2024 findet an der Leuphana die Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für die Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Medizin und Technik statt, zu der rund 120 Teilnehmer:innen erwartet werden. Die Lehrveranstaltung wird einerseits in das Rahmenthema der Tagung "Wissenschaft und Aktivismus" einführen und zum anderen der konkreten Vorbereitung der Tagung dienen. Interessierte haben die Möglichkeit, sich anschließend um einer der SHK-Stellen zu bewerben, die für die Durchführung der Tagung benötigt werden.